Vietnam (Indochina) War(s)

Vietnam (Indochina) War(s) 

This is a large collection of primary source documents all related to the First Indochina War and the Vietnam War. These telegrams, minutes, and discussion notes range from the early 1950s to the end of the 1970s, and most come from Chinese and Albanian archives. The earliest documents are from the 1954 Geneva Conference, which arranged for a temporary division of Vietnam along the 17th Parallel. There are also many documents from Albania archives on Vietnam-Albanian relations. The collection also includes several Chinese telegrams and memorandums on foreign and economic relations with Indochina, as well as discussions with Zhou Enlai and Mao Zedong.

See also Albania and the Indochina WarChina in the Cold War, and Chinese Foreign Policy in the Third World.


Resolution of the CC VKP
September 01 1952 - 

Telegram, Communist Party of the Soviet Union Central Committee [CPSU CC] to CCP [Chinese Communist Party] Central Committee, via [Soviet Ambassador to the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Comrade [Pavel F.] Yudin
February 26 1954 - Comrade Pavel Yudin asks the CCP to inform Comrade Ho Chi Minh that the discussion at the upcoming conference in Geneva will include the Korea question and restoring peace in Indochina.

“Preliminary Opinions on the Assessment of and Preparation for the Geneva Conference,” Prepared by the PRC Ministry of Foreign Affairs (drafted by PRC Premier and Foreign Minister Zhou Enlai) and Approved in Principle at a Meeting of the CCP Central Secretariat, [Excerpt]
March 02 1954 - Zhou discusses the need to make agreements at the Geneva conference in order to open a path for discussion and negotiation with the west. Zhou notes that because the US, France and Britain are not united in their opinions, the CCP must hold fast to their positions on the peaceful unification of Korea, and of peace in Indochina. Finally, Zhou suggests that the CCP prepare to discuss issues of trade, relaxing international tensions, and breaking the US embargo, although these issues are not on the agenda.

Telegram, PRC Ambassador to the Soviet Union and Vice Foreign Minister Zhang Wentian to the PRC Foreign Ministry, Zhou Enlai and the CCP Central Committee, “Reporting the Preliminary Opinions of Our Side on the Geneva Conference to the Soviet Side,”
March 06 1954 - Zhang Wentian discusses his visit with Molotov. During this meeting, Molotov says delegations from China, Korea, and Vietnam are welcome to Moscow before the Geneva conference to discuss its proceedings. Molotov also mentions several issues that still need to be discussed, such as relaxing tensions in Asia, Korean unification, ministers in attendance at the conference, and India’s participation in the Indochina discussion.

Draft Memorandum, “A Comprehensive Solution for Restoring Peace in Indochina,” Prepared by the Vietnam Group of the Chinese Delegation Attending the Geneva Conference
April 04 1954 - The Vietnam group of the Chinese delegation offers a solution involving peaceful unification within Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, so that these nations can govern themselves as independent, sovereign states.

Telegram, Zhang Wentian to PRC Vice Foreign Minister Li Kenong, Concerning the Soviet Suggestion on Propaganda Work at Geneva
April 06 1954 - Vasily Kuznetsov tells Zhang Wentian to work more on creating propaganda and diplomatic activities to expand the influence of New China.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to CCP CC Chairman Mao Zedong, CCP CC Vice Chairman Liu Shaoqi, and the Central Committee of the CCP, Concerning Soviet Premier Georgy M. Malenkov’s conversation with Zhou Enlai about the Vietnam Issue
April 23 1954 - Zhou Enlai describes his meeting with Khrushchev, Malenkov, and other Soviet officials. The Soviets agree with the CCP position on Indochina, and will give their opinion of China’s draft constitution in four months.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding Speeches at the Conference and the Situation at the First Plenary Session
April 26 1954 - Zhou Enlai reports on some last minute agreements regarding the conference procedures. It is decided that the Korean delegation will speak first, and that Thailand, Britain, and the Soviet Union will take turns chairing the conference.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding a Meeting with British Foreign Secretary Eden
May 01 1954 - Zhou Enlai, Molotov, and Eden discuss the Korea issue, the Indochina issue, Sino-British relations, British-American relations, and the issue of five powers.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation of the First Plenary Session
May 09 1954 -Zhou Enlai recaps the Indochina discussion that took place at the Geneva conference. Participants discussed a ceasefire, and supervision by an international committee. Enlai notes that his suggestion to invite the resistance governments in Laos and Cambodia to attend the conference produced debate.

Telegram, CCP Central Committee to Zhou Enlai, Reply to Zhou Enlai’s 9 May 1954 Telegram
May 09 1954 - The CCP informs Zhou Enlai that they agree with his opinions on the international committee.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Second Plenary Session, [Excerpt]
May 12 1954 - Zhou Enlai reports mainly on the second session of the Indochina issue. Participants are divided on the issue of a ceasefire. The Republic of Vietnam’s Pham Van Dong agrees that the releasing of sick and wounded POWs will include both French and Vietnamese troops.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Tenth Plenary Session
May 14 1954 -Zhou Enlai reports on Eden’s proposals at the tenth session on Korea. Eden focuses on elections based on the population distributions in North and South Korea, international supervision, and foreign troop withdrawal.

Minutes of Conversation between Zhou Enlai and Anthony Eden
May 14 1954 - Zhou Enlai and Anthony Eden discuss Geneva Conference proceedings related to the Korea and Indochina issues. Zhou expresses concerns for the French proposal on Indochina and states that China supports the North Vietnamese proposal. Zhou and Eden agree that a military armistice should be decided on, although they disagree on specific issues surrounding an armistice.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Others, Requesting Instructions on the Korean Issue and Regarding the Situation at the Fourth Plenary Session on the Indochina Issue
May 15 1954 - Zhou Enlai reports to the CCP on his meeting with Anthony Eden, the fourth plenary session on Indochina, and his meeting with the Soviet and Korean representatives. During the fourth session, representatives from Russia and France spoke on their positions on the armistice in Indochina.

Telegram, Reply from the CCP Central Committee to Zhou Enlai’s Telegrams of 15 May [and] 17 May 1954
May 17 1954 - The CCP informs Zhou that they agree that Korean elections should be supervised by neutral nations. They also emphasize two important points regarding the conditions for the elections.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Second Restricted Session
May 19 1954 - Zhou Enlai reports to the CCP on the second restricted session on Indochina and propaganda efforts of the Chinese and Russians. During the Indochina session, the US, France, and Britain disagreed with China, Russia, and the DRV on whether or not the Laos and Cambodia issues should be discussed separately from the Vietnam issues.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Third Restricted Session
May 20 1954 - Zhou Enlai reports on the continued session on Indochina. Again, the participants are divided in their opinions and nothing is achieved. All agree to continue the discussion another day. Also, Zhou prepares to take the lead in the session on Korea.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Fourth Restricted Session
May 22 1954 - Zhou Enlai reports on the Indochina session and the upcoming Korea session. All sides agree on the order of discussion of a ceasefire in Indochina and that they are open to including more in the discussion.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Eighth Restricted Session
May 30 1954 - Zhou reports on the restrictive session on Indochina. Participating countries agreed to a three-point proposal regarding peace in Indochina.

Minutes, Director of the Staff Office of the PRC Ministry of Foreign Affairs Wang Bingnan’s Meeting with President of the International Federation on Human Rights Joseph Paul-Boncour
May 30 1954 - Wang reports on his discussion with Paul-Boncour and Chauvel. Paul-Boncour makes suggestions on the upcoming secret meeting between Bidault and Zhou. Also, Wang and Chauvel discuss issues at the conference such as the cease-fire and supervisory committee in Indochina.

Minutes of Zhou Enlai’s Meeting with Bidault
June 01 1954 -Bidault and Zhou discuss the need to come to an agreement on troop regrouping and the composition and role of the supervisory committee for Indochina.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Ninth Restricted Session
June 01 1954 - Zhou reports on his conversation with Molotov and on the ninth restricted session on Indochina. Molotov describes his earlier meeting with Eden. Later, at the ninth session, Zhou insists to his opponents that the NNSC on Korea should serve as a model for NNSC on Indochina.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong, Regarding Contact with Eden and Bidault [Excerpt]
June 02 1954 - Zhou reports on issues raised at Eden’s banquet. Zhou tells Eden that the commission of neutral nations overseeing the Korean elections should be made up of both European and Asian countries.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Tenth Restricted Session
June 03 1954 - Zhou reports on the tenth restricted session on Indochina. Bidault spoke of the five functions of the NNSC for Indochina. Bidault opposes Poland’s and Czechoslovakia’s participation in the NNSC because he believes communist nations cannot be neutral.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Eleventh Restricted Session
June 04 1954 - Zhou reports on the eleventh restricted session on Indochina. During the session, Zhou opposes using the UN as a supervisory body, and asserts that the joint commission should take major responsibility in implementing the armistice, and that the NNSC’s function is to supervise the joint commission’s work and the Indochina borders.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Twelfth Restricted Session
June 05 1954 - Zhou reports on the twelfth restricted session on Indochina. Participants consider Zhou’s proposal that the NNSC should be responsible to the Geneva Conference participants. Molotov gives his counterarguments to Smith’s and Bidault’s statements.

Minutes, Wang Bingnan’s Meeting with Jean Chauvel and Counselor to the French Delegation, Colonel Jacques Guillermaz
June 05 1954 - Wang and Chauvel discuss the armistice in Indochina. Wang presents China’s ideas on the three part supervisory committee for the armistice. Chauvel suggests India, Burma, and Pakistan as examples of possible neutral nations to participate in the NNSC, and Wang supports the Soviet delegation’s suggestions.

Minutes, Wang Bingnan’s Meeting with French Ambassador to Switzerland Jean Chauvel and Jacques Guillermaz
June 06 1954 - Wang and Chauvel discuss hopes for reaching agreements regarding the Indochina armistice. Difficulties in reaching a compromise are covered.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Thirteenth Plenary Session
June 06 1954 - Zhou reports on the plenary session on the Korea issue. Mainly, Zhou writes of how the US is impeding negotiations because of their adamant stance in favor of UN supervisory body for Korean unification.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong, Concerning Consultations among the Chinese, Soviet and Vietnamese Delegations
June 07 1954 - Zhou informs the CCP that he is sending the twelve terms on the Indochina armistice issue to be discussed on the 8th.

Telegram, CCP Central Committee to Zhou Enlai, Replying to Zhou Enlai’s 7 June 1954 Telegram
June 07 1954 - CCP accepts the decisions Zhou wrote of in his 7 June 1954 telegram.

Telegram, Li Kenong to the PRC Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Regarding the Chinese Delegation’s Meeting with the Delegations of Various Popular French Organizations
June 09 1954 - Li Kenong reports to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Chinese delegation liaison team with the French delegations. Li describes the attitudes of most of the delegates as pro-Chinese and anti-American. The North African delegation, whom Li also meets, is described as anti-French government. Additionally, Li reports on propaganda materials (e.g. literature, buttons, etc) distributed during these meetings.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding Zhou’s Conversation with Bidault, [Excerpt] 
June 10 1954 - Zhou reports on his discussion with Bidault on the Indochina issue. The two discuss French relations with the Associated States and the NNSC.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Seventh Plenary Session
June 11 1954 - Zhou reports to the CCP on the open session on Indochina. During this session, Pham Van Dong (DRV) presents his five-point proposal, and Molotov rebuts arguments made by the US.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Fourteenth Plenary Session
June 13 1954 - Tensions rise as the six western countries decide the Korean issue should be returned to the UN if decisions cannot be reached in this episode of the Geneva conference.

Minutes, Meeting between Wang Bingnan and French Delegation Member [Jean] Paul-Boncour (Summary)
June 14 1954 - Paul-Boncour and Bingnan discuss the Korean issue. Paul-Boncour states that the US is joining 15 other countries to “sabotage” the conference on the issue of international supervision of Korean unification.

Minutes of Conversation between Zhang Wentian and Harold Caccia
June 15 1954 - In this meeting, Caccia explains to Zhang that Britain firmly supports the withdrawal of all Viet Minh troops from Laos and Cambodia.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Fifteenth Plenary Session
June 17 1954 - Zhou reports on the fifteenth plenary session on Korea. After several of their proposals of the Soviet, Korean, and Chinese delegations are turned down, the other 16 nations issue a joint declaration to end the conference. After this, Zhou proposes that the 19 nations issue a joint statement reflecting their common desire to achieve the peaceful settlement of the Korean issue. This proposal is also rejected, and the meeting ends with no agreements made.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding Zhou’s Conversation with Bidault
June 18 1954 - Zhou reports on his meeting with Bidault. Bidault expresses his desire to see the conference continue, and says there is still a week until Eden and Smith leave to reach some agreement. Zhou also speaks of the Cambodia and Laos issues.

Minutes, Meeting between Zhou Enlai and the Australian Minister for External Affairs, Richard Casey (Summary)
June 18 1954 - Zhou and Casey discuss issues of Korean unification, PRCs recognition in the UN, and Indochina. Zhou insists that if a nation establishes military bases in another country’s territory, it is for aggressive reasons.

Telegram, CCP Central Committee to Zhou Enlai, Concerning the Meeting at Nanning, 11:00 p.m. 
June 20 1954 - The CCP confirms Zhou’s upcoming trip to China where he will meet with the General Secretary of the VWP and other Chinese officials.

Telegram, CCP Central Committee to Wei Guoqing, Qiao Xiaoguang and Convey to the Vietnamese Workers Party Central Committee, Regarding the Meeting between the Premier and Comrade Ding
June 20 1954 - The CCP informs Wei Guoqing et al that while Molotov, Eden, and Smith are absent, the conference will discuss military issues regarding Indochina. Zhou has met with Molotov about this, and wants to meet with several Chinese and Vietnamese officials.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Sixteenth Restricted Session
June 21 1954 - Zhou reports on his meeting with the four partner delegations to bid farewell to Comrade Nam Il and to discuss the proposals of Laos and Cambodia. Also, Zhou discusses the three points of agreement both sides made during the sixteenth restricted session on Indochina.

Minutes, Zhou Enlai’s Meeting with [Jean] Chauvel
June 22 1954 - Chauvel confirms a meeting for Zhou with the French Prime Minister, and suggests that both countries announce the meeting at the same time to thwart distorted media coverage of the two countries. The two agree that the conference must continue. Also, Chauvel hands Zhou a proposal for a special committee to decide the composition of the supervisory committee.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding Talks with Eden
June 22 1954 - Zhou reports on a meeting with Eden. In this meeting the two discuss the proposals on Laos and Cambodia. They also agree that the foreign ministers return to the conference regularly to see that their military representatives are productive.

Minutes, Zhou Enlai’s Meeting with [Pierre] Mendes-France
June 23 1954 - Mendes-France and Zhou discuss the Indochina issue during their first meeting together. Both men feel they are in agreement with each other regarding several points (establishing a cease-fire before discussing political issues, that no US military bases should be established in Indochina, elections in Cambodia and Laos, cooperation between France and Vietnam and between the two sides in Vietnam). They end on a positive note, both certain that their few differences of opinion will be worked out.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi, and CCP Central Committee, “Arriving in Nanning on the 29th,”
June 23 1954 - Zhou informs the CCP of both his and Sheng Jian’s arrival dates.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Meeting with [Laotian Interior and Foreign Minister Phoui] Sananikone
June 23 1954 - Laotian Foreign Minister Sananikone explains to Zhou the wants and intentions of the Laos delegation.

Telegram, CCP Central Committee to Zhou Enlai
June 23 1954 - The CCP informs Enlai of when Luo Guibo and Xie Fang will arrive in Nanning.

Telegram, Li Kenong to the PLA [People’s Liberation Army] General Staff and PRC Foreign Ministry, Regarding the Trip by [DRV Ambassador to the PRC] Hoang Van Hoan and his Six-Person Group
June 24 1954 - Li Kenong requests a special plane for Hoang Van Hoan folks’ arrival in Beijing.

Telegram, Li Kenong to the PRC Foreign Ministry
June 24 1954 - Instructions are given for the three bags of top secret documents accompanying Comrade Ke Bainian to China.

Telegram, Wang Bingnan to PRC Foreign Ministry Administrative Office
June 25 1954 - Telegrams from Geneva should be given to Premier Zhou. Telegrams from Geneva to ambassador to the USSR will be conveyed by the Ministry.

Telegram, Li Kenong to Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi, and the CCP Central Committee, and Convey to Zhou Enlai, Zhang Wentian and [PRC Vice Foreign Minister] Wang Jiaxiang, Concerning the Content of a Meeting between the Soviet, Chinese, and Vietnamese Delegations
June 26 1954 - The Chinese, Vietnamese, and Soviet delegations meet to discuss the division of zones in Indochina.

Telegram, PRC Foreign Ministry to Li Kenong, Concerning Hoang Van Hoan’s Arrival in Beijing
June 26 1954 - Notification that Hoang Van Hoan arrived in Beijing.

Telegram, PRC Foreign Ministry Administrative Office to Li Kenong, 3:00 p.m. 
June 27 1954 - Notification that the three bags of documents carried by Comrade Shan Daxin have arrived and will be delivered to the proper recipients.

Telegram, PRC Foreign Ministry to Li Kenong
June 27 1954 - Zhou Enlai send a telegram informing the Chinese leadership that he will stay one day longer in Burma.

Telegram, PRC Department of Military Operations Director Zhang Zhen to PRC Military Advisor to the PRC Geneva Conference Delegation Lei Yingfu
June 28 1954 - Top secret documents were received.

Telegram, Li Kenong to Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi, and the Central Committee, “Briefing on the Meeting by the Chinese, Soviet and Vietnamese Delegations”
June 29 1954 -Li Kenong reports on his usual meeting between the Chinese, Soviet, and Vietnamese delegations. Kuznetsov says the French think the Vietnamese are too demanding. Also, the Vietnamese request more discussion on economic issues and less of zone division.

Telegram, PRC Foreign Ministry to Zhou Enlai
June 29 1954 - Zhou is informed that the top secret documents are on its way to him.

Telegram, PRC Foreign Ministry to Zhang Wentian, Wang Jiaxiang, and Li Kenong
July 02 1954 - Zhou will arrive at 12:00 for the meeting.

Telegram, Li Kenong to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Twentieth Restricted Session
July 03 1954 - In his report, Li notes that the opinions of the different delegations regarding the joint commission and the NNSC are becoming closer to one another. Britain and Bao Dai, however, remain unchanged in their opinions.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi and the CCP Central Committee, “A Brief Report on the Meetings at Liuzhou”
July 03 1954 - During this first meeting in Liuzhou, the Comrade Vo makes a comprehensive presentation. Later, Zhou will give a report on the Geneva Conference and the international situation.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi and the CCP Central Committee, “A Brief Report on the Meetings at Liuzhou,”
July 04 1954 - Zhou reports on his meeting in Liuzhou with Viet Minh General Vo Nguyen Giap and military advisor to the VWP Comrade Wei Guoqing. Both men made reports. Zhou then discussed issues at the Geneva Conference.

Telegram, PRC Foreign Ministry to Li Kenong, Zhang Wentian, and Wang Jiaxiang
July 06 1954 - Zhou safely returns to Beijing.

Telegram, Li Kenong to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Twenty-First Restricted Session
July 07 1954 - Li reports on the 21st restricted session on Indochina. Li states China’s position, which has been consistent, on the NNSC and joint commission. Li notes that the French now lean toward his side regarding Indochina. Li is asked to clarify a point by the French and Cambodian delegates, and the Laotian delegate makes a statement.

Telegram, Li Kenong to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Twenty-Second Restricted Session
July 10 1954 - Li reports on the 22nd restricted session on Indochina. During the meeting, the American and Cambodian delegates state the necessity for defensive weapons in Cambodia and Laos. Li states that the issue of weapons should only be discussed based on certain principles: self-defense only, prohibition of foreign bases, and the countries’ relationship with France. After the Vietnamese and French delegates spoke, the Cambodian delegate made clear Cambodia’s intentions regarding weapons and defense.

Minutes of Conversation between Zhou Enlai and Anthony Eden
July 13 1954 - Zhou describes his meeting with Mendes-France and his trip to visit India to Eden. Zhou mentions the Sino-Indian and Sino-Burmese statements, and asks Eden to consider them a binding statement that China has no designs on Indochina, contrary to American suspicions. The two also discuss the upcoming meeting of Mendes-France with Pham Van Dong, and the possibility for progress during this meeting.

Minutes of Zhou Enlai’s Meeting with [Jean] Chauvel
July 13 1954 - Chauvel presents Zhou with a draft agreement for a cease-fire in Indochina. Chauvel notes that the issue of armed forces limitation should be discussed by the entire conference, and that the draft has been handed out to all the delegations for suggested additions and corrections.

Minutes of Zhou Enlai’s Meeting with [Pierre] Mendes-France
July 17 1954 - Zhou Enlai and Mendes-France discuss the defense organization of Southeast Asia. Enlai expresses concern that the United States intends to organize this group, and that increasing U.S. influence and alliance will make restoration of peace in the region meaningless. Mendes-France responds that the Paris meeting did not consider this formation of this alliance and that he has no knowledge of U.S. intention to form this alliance. The men also briefly discuss resolution of two other issues: how to draw the demarcation line and when to hold elections.

Minutes, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai’s Conversation with [French Prime Minister Pierre] Mendes-France (Exerpt)
July 17 1954 - Mendes-France and Enlai discuss the Indochina issue during their first meeting together. Both men feel they are in agreement with each other regarding several points (establishing a cease-fire before discussing political issues, that no US military bases should be established in Indochina, elections in Cambodia and Laos, cooperation between France and Vietnam and between the two sides in Vietnam). They end on a positive note, both sure that their few differences of opinion will be worked out.

Minutes of Conversation between Zhou Enlai and Anthony Eden
July 17 1954 - Eden assures Zhou that the US has no intention of establishing military bases in Indochina, and that although it has not been suggested that Cambodia and Laos join the Southeast Asian Pact, such an agreement would not threaten China. Zhou expresses concern over the pact, and suggests another model for peace in Indochina. The two debate over these issues.

Minutes of Conversation between Zhou Enlai and [Laotian Foreign Minister Phoui] Sananikone (Summary)
July 18 1954 - Sananikone asks for Zhou’s opinion on several problems/issues Laos faces regarding the armistice and unification in Laos. Sananikone also makes clear that Laos does not plan on joining the Southeast Asian Pact, saying there is no need to if the conference can reach an agreement.

Minutes of Conversation between Zhang Wentian and [Harold] Caccia
July 18 1954 - Caccia informs Zhang that Eden will not bring up the issue of the Indochina countries joining Southeast Asian if an agreement is reached at the conference. Zhang notes that both the French and Vietnamese feel they’ve made enough concessions regarding regrouping areas in Laos. Caccia mentions Vietnam’s rejection of the proposed make-up of the NNSC, and Zhang and Caccia discuss the need for a definite election date in Vietnam.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Twenty-third Restricted Session
July 19 1954 - Zhou reports on the 23rd restricted session on Indochina. The delegates of the conference hope to make an agreement on the 20th. Zhou notes that both the Chinese/Russian side and the other side have begun to make compromises, however Bao Dai’s Vietnamese delegation refused to the division of Vietnam.

Minutes of Conversation between Zhou Enlai, Pierre Mendes-France, and Eden
July 19 1954 - Zhou, Mendes-France, and Eden discuss regrouping areas and French troops in Laos. The three are close in their opinions, but there are still points of division. Mendes-France agrees to limit the number of French troops, but insists a specified time limit is unreasonable. Mendes-France also insists that some regrouping areas are needed in the south. This last point, the three agree to leave to military experts.

Minutes of Conversation between Zhang Wentian and Harold Caccia
July 19 1954 - Zhang and Caccia discuss three points. First Caccia mentions the French are primarily concerned with Route 9, and makes suggestions for this. Secondly, Caccia notes the French do not see elections occurring for another couple of years. Finally, Caccia makes clear that if an agreement is reached at the conference, there is no need for the Indochina countries to join military alliances.

Minutes of Conversation between Zhang Wentian and Harold Caccia, Second Meeting of 19 July
July 19 1954 - Zhou meets with Eden to discuss five points: the demarcation line in Vietnam, elections, the international supervisory committee, withdrawal of foreign troops, and a guarantee that collective measures will be taken if a breech of an agreement is made.

Telegram, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding Zhou’s Meetings with Pierre Mendes-France and Eden, as well as Discussions Outside the Conference
July 20 1954 - Zhou reports on his meeting with Medes-France and Eden. Though Zhou notes they have found a solution for the election date in Vietnam, the parties still must work out issues of regrouping areas and troop withdrawal.

Minutes of Conversation between Zhou Enlai and Cambodian Foreign Minister Tep Phan (Summary)
July 20 1954 - Zhou Enlai and Tep Phan discuss the Vietnamese proposal for conflict resolution. The Cambodian side discusses issues on which they agree with the Vietnamese (that the Vietnamese will not be discriminated against in Cambodia, that there will be no combatant personnel in Cambodia, etc.) and issues on which they disagree (military issues, Viet Minh withdrawal timetable, etc.). Zhou expresses hope that these issues will be resolved in an upcoming meeting with the Vietnamese, and that he will do what he can to assist in the resolution.

Excerpt from Ordnance: Chronology of Historical Events, Volume 1
June 23 1958 - Excerpt from an internal Vietnamese army history which describes a 1958 shipment of weapons to Algeria to help the Algerian rebels fighting against the French.

Telegram from the Enver Hoxha to Ho Chi Minh via Gac Mazi, the Albanian Ambassador to Moscow
August 15 1961 - This is a telegram from the 1st Secretary of the Party of Labor of Albania Enver Hoxha to President Ho Chi Minh delivered via the Albanian Ambassador to Moscow Gac Mazi. This telegram discusses the possible visit of Ho Chi Minh to Tirana. Hoxha orders Mazi to contact Ho Chi Minh urgently and deliver a copy of the telegram to him. Enver Hoxha believes that the disputes between the various leaders of the socialist countries in Europe and the Party of Labor in Albania are serious and cannot be resolved simply or immediately. He assigns the blame for these disputes to the leaders of the other socialist countries. Hoxha asks Ho Chi Minh to talk to these leaders about these disputes before coming to Tirana. The reason for this is that other European communist leaders have begun denigrating the Party of Labor of Albania, the Albanian government, and the Albanian people. Hoxha writes that the Albanian leadership is still carefully analyzing the causes of the disputes. Lastly, he informs Ho Chi Minh that he will be ready to discuss the Tirana trip further in the second half of November of 1961.

Telegram from the Albanian Ambassador in Beijing Reiz Malile to the Albanian Prime Minister Mehmet Shehu
August 29 1961 - This is a telegram from the Albanian Ambassador in Beijing Reiz Malile to the Prime Minister, Mehmet Shehu. Malile reports on his discussion with Marshal Chen Yi, the Chinese foreign minister, about a possible visit from the President of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam Ho Chi Minh to Tirana. Chen Yi suggests that Malile go to Vietnam for a national celebration and he promises a Chinese plane as transportation for his trip.

Telegram from the Foreign Affairs Minister of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam Ung Van Khiem to the Albanian Foreign Affairs Minister Behar Shtylla
October 30 1961 - This document is a telegram from the Foreign Affairs Minister of North Vietnam Ung Van Khiem to the Albanian Foreign Affairs Minister Behar Shtylla. Van Khiem describes to Shtylla the history of American-Vietnamese relations from the 1954 Geneva Convention until 1961. Van Khiem stresses that the situation in South Vietnam has worsened after President Kennedy took office. During May 1961, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson came to Saigon and discussed with the President of the Republic of Vietnam Ngo Dinh Diem the prospect of enlarging American presence in South Vietnam. Since that time the South Vietnamese government, with American support, organized internment camps and a cordon sanitaire in the area of the South Vietnamese borders with Laos and Cambodia. Van Khiem sees these actions as menacing to peace in Indochina, and Southeast Asia more generally. The North Vietnamese government, abiding by the Geneva Convention on Indochina, proposed organizing a conference with the South Vietnamese authorities in order to discuss free elections throughout the country and the reunification of Vietnam. The government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam denounced the American plans to enlarge the scope of aggressive actions in Vietnam and, especially, the plan to deploy the U.S. Army in South Vietnam.

Telegram from Behar Shtylla to Ung Van Khiem
December 02 1961 - This document is a telegram from Albanian Foreign Affairs Minister Behar Shtylla to the Foreign Affairs Minister of North Vietnam, Ung Van Khiem. Shtylla shares the same indignation as the Vietnamese minister towards the dangerous situation arising in Vietnam. According to Shtylla, Kennedy is trying to transform South Vietnam into a base of operations for aggression directed against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Taking into account other actions towards Laos and Cambodia, he believes Kennedy is attempting to convert Indochina into an American base. Shtylla states that the American policy in Vietnam violates the general international conventions of conduct, as well as the Vietnamese people’s sovereignty. Shtylla expresses full solidarity with the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and supports its request that the chairmen of the Geneva Conference take measures against the American inference in South Vietnam.

Report on Reiz Malile’s ambassadorial credentials sent to the DRV and his discussions with the DRV leaders 
May 02 1962 - The new ambassador to China and to the DRV, Reiz Malile, reports on his meetings with Vietnamese leaders during his visit to Vietnam on 14 – 28 of April 1962. Malile states that he met DRV President Ho Chi Minh, the Prime Minister of the DRV, Fam Van Dong, Minister of Foreign Affairs for the DRV, Ung Van Khiem, and 1st Secretary of the Central Committee of the Working Party of Vietnam, Le Duan. In his discussions, they support the Albanian government’s stance on Khrushchev and the Soviet leadership in general. Meanwhile, the Vietnamese leaders avoid discussions targeted against the Soviet Union and, instead, propose the need for unity in the international communist movement. They also ask to stop the polemic in the media in order for the other bloc not to profit from the internal disputes of the communist camp. According to Malile, among the Vietnamese leadership there is a strong spirit not to cause a break with the Soviet Union. Malile claims that the Vietnamese communists are not fully informed on Albanian-Soviet disputes, which they view as simple disagreements between brothers. According to Malile, there is a great deal of Chinese and Soviet propaganda concerning the political international situation that presents differing points of view.

Report by the War Department of the General Staff
April 25 1964 - 

Report on the meeting between the Democratic Republic of Vietnam’s ambassador Nguyen Ngoc-Son with Qemal Rahmanaj
August 06 1964 -This document is a report on a meeting between the Democratic Republic of Vietnam’s representative, Nguyen Ngoc-Son, with an Albanian official, Qemal Rahmanaj. Nguyen-Ngoc-Son reveals the American and South Vietnamese 1955 plan concerning marching into North Vietnam and establishing order in the South. In 1961 the plan is carried out in 3 phases. In phase 1, the Americans and the South Vietnamese government cooperated to create order in South Vietnam and establish American bases in North Vietnam. Phase 2 includes improving the military capability of the U.S. army and commencing sabotage operations in the North. Phase 3 includes developing the South Vietnamese economy and the beginning of military operations against North Vietnam. Alarmingly, the frequency of attacks against North Vietnam increases even further in 1964. Because of this, the ambassador asks for a press conference to inform Albanian media about the situation in Vietnam.

Declaration of the Government of the People’s Republic of Albania concerning the aggressive military operations of the U.S. against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam on August 7, 1964
August 07 1964 - This document is a declaration of the People’s Republic of Albania decrying the American military’s actions on August 7 targeted against North Vietnam. According to the Albanian government, these operations endangered peace in Indochina and Southeast Asia in general in addition to violating the Geneva Convention of 1954. The American 7th Fleet and the American Air Force, along with South Vietnamese government forces, provoked a retaliatory action from North Vietnam. In addition, the Albanian government believes the Americans dispatched spies and saboteurs to North Vietnam. The Albanian government fully supports the sovereignty and independence of the North Vietnamese people in their struggle against the Americans. This declaration was distributed to all foreign diplomatic envoys in Albania.

Meeting between the North Vietnamese ambassador with the 1st vice-minister of foreign affairs of the People’s Republic of Albania Vasil Nathanaili
August 10 1964 - This document outlines the meeting between the North Vietnamese ambassador with the 1st vice-minister of foreign affairs of the People’s Republic of Albania, Vasil Nathanaili. The ambassador thanks the Albanian government for the August 7 declaration in support of North Vietnamese sovereignty and independence. He informs the Albanian official about the growing pressure of the American government on the United Nations to become more involved in the conflict in Vietnam and to spread the blame for violating the Geneva Convention of 1954 on Indochina to North Vietnam. It is stated that the Soviet representative in the UN proposed to invite a North Vietnamese delegation to discuss the situation in Vietnam without previously informing the North Vietnamese government about the issue, prompting an official complaint to the Soviet embassy in Hanoi. Furthermore, the American representatives in the UN invited a South Vietnamese delegation in order to discuss the same issue. The document also mentions the reaction of the North Vietnamese government after the supposed violation of the Geneva Convention and specific steps to condemn the Americans publicly.

Mao Zedong’s Comments on the War Department’s April 25 Report
August 12 1964 - 

Report on How Our Country’s Economic Construction Should Prepare Itself Against an Enemy Surprise Attack
August 19 1964 - 

Discussion between Mao Zedong and Sangsiv
September 04 1964 - Mao Zedong advising Sangsiv on how to strengthen Communism in Laos, including learning from Chinese mistakes.

Discussion between Mao Zedong and Cambodian Prince Sihanouk
September 28 1964 - Zedong discusses previous and present Chinese-American relations, focusing especially on Taiwan

Discussion between Mao Zedong and Pham Van Dong 
October 05 1964 - Zedong advises Pham Van Dong on how to handle war in South Vietnam and protection of North Vietnam.

Report on the meeting between the Democratic Republic of Vietnam’s representative Tran Dinh Thu with Shpresa Fuga on October 26, 1964
October 26 1964 - This document is a report on a meeting between the Democratic Republic of Vietnam’s representative, Tran Dinh Thu, with an Albanian official, Shpresa Fuga. Tran Dinh Thu discusses an upcoming international conference on solidarity with the people of South Vietnam against the Americans that is to be held in Hanoi on November 25. He invites the Albanian delegation along with 50 other delegations. The conference and the idea behind it are initiated by the Committee of the Communist Party of North Vietnam, but in fact it is carried out by the Vietnam Committee of Peace, the Afro-Asian Solidarity Committee and the National Front of Vietnam.

A written message from the Albanian Prime Minster Mehmet Shehu to the participants of the conference on solidarity with the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in Hanoi on November 25, 1964
November 25 1964 - This document condemns the recent American involvement in South Vietnam. In addition, Shehu stresses the importance of showing support for the struggle of the people of South Vietnam and the Geneva Convention of 1954 which, he implies, the Americans violated.

Zhou Enlai talking to Ho Chi Minh
March 01 1965 - Zhou Enlai discusses new Soviet Party leadership, a joint statement of support of Vietnam from socialist countries and close observation of Soviet military activities.

Resolution of the Party Central Committee on the Immediate Situation and Urgent Responsibilities
March 27 1965 - Resolution by the Communist Party of Vietnam Central Committee on the Vietnam War and the related “diplomatic struggle.”

Zhou Enlai to Algerian President Ben Bella
March 30 1965 -In Algeria, Enlai describes the unfavorable tactics (military and negotiating) employed by the US in South Vietnam.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Ayub Khan, President of Pakistan
April 02 1965 - 

Zhou Enlai and Pakistani President Ayub Khan
April 02 1965 -Zhou Enlai addresses African and European concerns relating to the war in South Vietnam. He attempts to answer the questions of: the possibility of the war’s worldwide expansion, China’s role and the possibility of negotiation.

Discussion between Liu Shaoqi and Le Duan
April 08 1965 - China offers military services to Vietnam, on the condition that Vietnam invites them first; Vietnam accepts.

Conversation between Soviet Ambassador to the PRC, S. V. Chervonenko and Chinese Prime Minister, Zhou Enlai (fragment)
April 20 1965 - Zhou Enlai, in a conversation with Soviet Ambassador to the PRC, S. V. Chervonenko, draws parallels between the Algerian War for independence and the struggle of the Vietnamese people. Zhou Enlai recounts his conversation with Algerian leader Ben Bella about the Vietnam War.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai, Nguyen Van Hieu and Nguyen Thi Binh
May 16 1965 - Zhou Enlai addresses Nguyen Van Hieu and Nguyen Thi Binh concerning the steps to take should the US escalate in Vietnam and expand into China, comparing Vietnam to Korea.

Discussion between Mao Zedong and Ho Chi Minh
May 16 1965 - Ho Chi Minh asks Mao Zedong for help to build roads along the border to South Vietnam; Mao agrees.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai, Deng Xiaoping and Ho Chi Minh
May 17 1965 -Zhou Enlai and Deng Xioaping offer to chastise Soviet revisionists on behalf of North Vietnam.

Liu Shaoqi’s Spech to the Central Military Commission
May 19 1965 - 

Liu Shaoqi’s Speech to the Central Military Commission war planning meeting on 19 May 1965
May 19 1965 - 

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Indonesian Prime Minister Subandrio
May 28 1965 - Zhou Enlai outlines the Chinese reaction should the US expand the Vietnam War into China, reassuring Subandrio that should the war enter China, his country is prepared to retaliate.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere
June 04 1965 -Zhou Enlai sees the current US involvement in the Congo as a serious situation, but, on a worldwide scale, Vietnam is much more serious.

Discussion between Mao Zedong and Hoang Van Hoan
July 16 1965 - Mao Zedong advises Hoang Van Hoan to escalate without hesitation, as the war has already begun to do so.

Chinese Foreign Ministry Circular, “Talks Between the Ghanaian Mission and the DRV
August 03 1965 - 

Malraux’s visit to China
August 12 1965 - 

Zhou Enlai’s talk with E. H. K. Mudenda 
August 20 1965 - 

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Pham Van Dong
October 09 1965 - Zhou Enlai addresses Pham Van Dong, not supporting the idea of Soviet volunteers entering Vietnam and discussing Cambodian involvement in the war.

Mao’s Conversation with the Party and Government Delegation of the DRV
October 20 1965 - 

Mao’s Conversation with the Party and Government Delegation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam110
October 20 1965 - 

Speech Given by Party First Secretary Le Duan to the 12th Plenum of the Party Central Committee
December 01 1965 - In this secret policy speech, Vietnamese Communist Party First Secretary Le Duan outlines the North Vietnamese negotiating strategy with United States, including the conditions under which talks between the two sides might first begin.

Excerpt from Resolution of the 12 Plenum of the Party Central Committee On the New Situation and Our New Responsibilities 
December 01 1965 - Resolution by the Communist Party of Vietnam proposing to make “every possible effort to win international sympathy, support, and assistance.”

Discussion between Chen Yi and Nguyen Duy Trinh
December 17 1965 - Chen Yi advocates the use of negotiation alongside fighting.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai, Chen Yi and Nguyen Duy Trinh
December 18 1965 - Zhou Enlai and Chen Yi strategize about negotiation with the United States.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Chen Yi
December 19 1965 - Zhou Enlai puts forward four points necessary for a strengthened Vietnamese and Chinese vantage point in negotiations with the United States.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Le Duan 
March 23 1966 - Zhou Enlai cautions Le Duan against Soviet assistance.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai, Deng Xioaping, Kang Shen, Le Duan and Nguyen Duy Trinh
April 13 1966 - China stresses the importance of Chinese aid in Vietnam, while pointing out Vietnam’s seeming mistrust; Vietnam relies on Chinese support.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai, Pham Van Dong and Hoang Tung
August 23 1966 -Zhou Enlai proposes sending more military personnel to Vietnam, he also criticizes Vietnamese press for writing about historical Chinese aggressions toward Vietnam.

General Vo Nguyen Giap’s Decision On North Korea’s Request to Send a Number of Pilots to Fight in Vietnam
September 21 1966 - Excerpt from an official People’s Army of Vietnam historical publication describing a North Korean request to send an Air Force regiment to help defend North Vietnam against U.S. air attacks. The request was approved.

Signing of a Protocol Agreement for North Korea to Send a Number of Pilots to Fight the American Imperialists during the War of Destruction against North Vietnam
September 30 1966 - Agreement for the dispatch of a North Korean Air Force contingent to fight in North Vietnam. The agreement stipulates that the North Koreans would provide pilots for one North Korean Air Force regiment consisting of two companies (ten aircraft each) of MiG-17s and one company of MiG-21s, while Vietnam would provide the aircraft and all necessary technical equipment, maintenance, and logistics support for the North Korean flyers.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Ion Gheorghe Maurer
October 05 1966 - 

Polish-Soviet Talks in Lansk: January 18, 1967 
January 18 1967 - Gomulka, Podgorny and Brezhnev discuss an upcoming conference of communist parties. Central to the discussion is the attitude of the Chinese.

Secret North Vietnam Politburo Cable
January 23 1967 - The Vietnamese Politburo informs COSVN (the communist command in South Vietnam) of new developments in the war, stating that international opinion is turning against the US after the escalated bombing of North Vietnam. It then outlines the Vietnamese “Talk-Fight” strategy.

Report by Nguyen Duy Trinh to the 13 Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam
January 23 1967 - North Vietnamese Foreign Minister Nguyen Duy Trinh discusses American military strategy in Vietnam as well as the US’s internal political situation. He then outlines the rational for the Vietnamese “Talk-Fight” strategy.

Secret North Vietnam Politburo Cable
January 23 1967 - The Vietnamese Politburo informs COSVN (the communist command in South Vietnam) of new developments in the war, stating that international opinion is turning against the US after the escalated bombing of North Vietnam. It then outlines the Vietnamese “Talk-Fight” strategy.

Report by Nguyen Duy Trinh to the 13 Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam
January 23 1967 - North Vietnamese Foreign Minister Nguyen Duy Trinh discusses American military strategy in Vietnam as well as the US’s internal political situation. He then outlines the rational for the Vietnamese “Talk-Fight” strategy.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Pham Van Dong
April 07 1967 - Soviet proposals to increase aid to Vietnam, via China

Discussion between Zhou Enlai, Pham Van Dong and Vo Nguyen Giap (2)
April 07 1967 - Zhou Enlai reinforces his and China’s commitment to the war in Vietnam, even though he is almost seventy years old.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai, Pham Van Dong and Vo Nguyen Giap (1)
April 07 1967 - Zhou Enlai comments on the American military personality.

Zhou Enlai’s Talk with Pham Van Dong and Vo Nguyen Giap
April 10 1967 - 

Discussion between Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai and Pham Van Dong
April 10 1967 - Zhou Enlai and Mao Zedong address the issue of problematic Chinese Red Guard.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Pham Van Dong
April 10 1967 - Zhou Enlai discusses expansion of Vietnam War, as well as the development of a new front in Cambodia; also, a discussion on Prince Sihanouk and Lon Nol.

Zhou Enlai’s Talk with Pham Van Dong and Vo Nguyen Giap
April 11 1967 - 

Discussion between Chinese and Vietnamese delegations
April 11 1967 - Zhou Enlai recounts previous relations concerning Taiwan and the GMD, America and the Soviet Union within the context of China’s recent history. He also emphasizes the need for Cambodian support.

Discussion between Mao Zedong, Pham Van Dong and Vo Nguyen Giap
April 11 1967 - Mao Zedong encourages Pham Van Dong to continue fighting and praises the Vietnamese on the resiliency, not only in the war against the Americans, but against the French and Japanese.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai, Chen Yi, Pham Van Dong and Vo Nguyen Giap
April 12 1967 - Zhou Enlai discusses the class struggle present in China.

Discussion between Chinese Deputy Foreign Minister Qiao Guanhua and Vietnamese Ambassador Ngo Minh Loan
May 13 1967 - Qiao Guanhua disagrees with the plan to send Soviet planes to Vietnam via air instead of rail.

Telegram from Pyongyang to Bucharest, No. 76.247
July 06 1967 - Romanian telegram reporting on a conversation with Nguyen Long, a Viet Cong National Liberation Front official visiting Pyongyang. The third paragraph describes the activities of North Korean intelligence agents active in South Vietnam, directly quoting Long: “They are active in those areas where South Korean troops are operating, so as to study their fighting tactics, techniques combat readiness and the morale of the South Korean Army, and to use propaganda against the South Koreans.”

Secret North Vietnam Politburo Cable
January 21 1968 - The Vietnamese Politburo informs COSVN (the communist command in South Vietnam) of plans to form a new front, the “Alliance of National, Democratic, and Peace Forces.” This group was to work to undermine the American war effort.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Ho Chi Minh
February 07 1968 -Zhou Enlai proposes to the Vietnamese to organize additional field army corps to carry out operational tasks far from home bases.

Secret North Vietnam Politburo Cable
April 03 1968 - The Vietnamese Politburo informs COSVN (the communist command in South Vietnam) of developments in the war following the 1968 Tet Offensive.

Secret North Vietnam Politburo Cable
April 08 1968 - The Vietnamese Politburo informs COSVN (the communist command in South Vietnam) of developments in the United States domestic politics which have impacted President Johnson’s strategy in Vietnam. It also discusses goals for the upcoming diplomatic contacts with the US.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Pham Van Dong
April 13 1968 - Zhou Enlai discusses with Pham Van Dong Vietnam’s course of action in the face of American turmoil at home and negotiations in Vietnam.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Pham Van Dong
April 17 1968 - Zhou Enlai presses for a great victory, telling Pham Van Dong he must be ready to fight for the next three years.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Pham Van Dong
April 19 1968 - Zhou Enlai chastises the Vietnamese for seemingly being too conciliatory in negotiations and failing to take opportunities that would have allowed a stronger position against the US.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai, Kang Sheng and Pham Van Dong
April 29 1968 -Discussion on the international communist movement and the possible causes that could bring about collapse.

Zhou Enlai’s talk with Xuan Thuy
May 07 1968 - 

Discussion between Zhou Enlai, Chen Yi and Xuan Thuy
May 07 1968 -Zhou Enlai draws on differences between the Korean War and the Vietnam War as a way to show the importance of strong negotiating tactics in Vietnam, he also asks Xuan Thuy to keep negotiations secret from the Soviets.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Pham Hung
June 19 1968 -Zhou Enlai discusses the role of China and Vietnam in the Cambodian revolution.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Pham Hung
June 29 1968 - China advises Vietnam against a weakened negotiating position with the United States; China also cautions against Soviet pressure to negotiate.

Report Presented to the 15 Plenum of the Communist Party of Vietnam Central Committee
August 29 1968 - Lengthy briefing for the Central Committee on the status of North Vietnamese diplomatic efforts during the first eight months of 1968 and future plans.

Secret North Vietnam Politburo Cable No. 320
October 10 1968 - The Vietnamese Politburo briefs COSVN (the communist command in South Vietnam) on domestic politics in the United States and the possible impact of the upcoming US election. Based on the US situation, the Politburo had decided to adjust their current negotiation strategy and seek an immediate agreement with the US to end the bombing of North Vietnam.

Secret North Vietnam Politburo Cable No. 323
October 15 1968 - The Vietnamese Politburo informs COSVN (the communist command in South Vietnam) that as a result of US demands, the South Vietnamese government would be allowed to participate in the upcoming four-party conference on the Vietnam War. This was a reverse of the Politburo’s earlier position that South Vietnam should not be involved in the talks.

Discussion between Chen Yi and Le Duc Tho
October 17 1968 - Chen Yi criticizes Vietnam on past concessions to the US, which undermine China and the NLF; Chen Yi also criticizes Vietnam’s acceptance of Soviet proposals to negotiate.

Secret North Vietnam Politburo Cable
October 20 1968 - The Vietnamese Politburo updates COSVN (the communist command in South Vietnam) on the progress of plans for a four-party conference with the US.

Discussion between Mao Zedong and Pham Van Dong 
November 17 1968 - Mao Zedong advises Vietnam to use low US morale and new President Nixon to their advantage. Mao Zedong also withdraws unneeded Chinese troops, promising to return if needed.

Discussing between Mao Zedong and Pham Van Hong
November 17 1968 - 

Mao’s Conversation with Pham Van Dong, 17 November 1968
November 17 1968 - 

Secret North Vietnam Politburo Cable
December 12 1968 - The Vietnamese Politburo updates COSVN (the communist command in South Vietnam) on the progress of plans for a four-party conference with the US. It discusses the upcoming inauguration of President Nixon and the Vietnamese negotiation strategy.

Minutes of Todor Zhivkov – Indira Gandhi Meeting, Delhi
January 24 1969 - The two leaders talk about Vietnam, the Arab-Israeli conflict, and the situation in Europe.

Zhou Enlai, Kang Shenf, Pham Van Dong, Hoang Van Thai and Pham Hung address the COSVN delegation
April 20 1969 - Zhou Enlai acknowledges that Nixon has recognized Cambodia and sees the problems connected. Zhou Enlai warns the Vietnamese about being deceived by Soviet revisionists during negotiations with the US. Kang Sheng criticizes the number of Vietnamese being sent abroad to study.

Discussion between Li Xiannian and Le Duc Tho
April 29 1969 - Li Xiannian advises South Vietnam toward a total victory and regards negotiation as of secondary importance.

Zhou Enlai’s talk with Ion Gheorghe Maurer
September 07 1969 - 

Politburo Resolution No. 194-NQ/TW, On Policy Toward Captured American Pilots in North Vietnam
November 20 1969 - North Vietnam Communist Party resolution containing detailed instructions for improving the treatment and living conditions of American prisoners of war.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Pham Van Dong
March 21 1970 - Zhou Enlai advises to support Prince Sihanouk over Lon Nol.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Prince Sihanouk
March 22 1970 - Zhou Enlai gives Sihanouk China’s support in the Cambodian Revolution.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Prince Sihanouk
March 28 1970 -North Korea and several Arabic countries support Prince Sihanouk, but Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is holding back. Zhou Enlai reassures Prince Sihanouk that the Soviets will reconsider.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Prince Sihanouk
April 01 1970 - Zhou Enlai expresses approval that the Cambodian people want Prince Sihanouk to return.

Discussion between Mao Zedong and Le Duan
May 11 1970 - Mao Zedong advises Le Duan not to fear the United States.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Nguyen Thi Binh
June 17 1970 - Zhou Enlai assures Nguyen Thi Binh that victory in Vietnam is possible, despite expansion.

Discussion between Mao Zedong and Kaysone Phomvihane
July 07 1970 - Mao Zedong meets with members of the Laotian People’s Revolutionary Party and gives them his support.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Trinh Dinh Thao
July 23 1970 -Zhou Enlai discusses the advantages and disadvantages of signing the Geneva accords.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Pham Van Dong
September 17 1970 - Pham Van Dong outlines two new diplomatic offensives the NLF is taking against the US. Zhou Enlai proposes sending Chinese representatives to the front to observe the situation in South Vietnam.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Pham Van Dong 
September 19 1970 - Zhou Enlai asks Pham Van Dong to stop sending students to Europe, opting for education by Chinese teachers in Vietnam instead; he also praises recent Vietnamese diplomacy.

Discussion between Ambassador Wang Youping and Pham Van Dong
September 20 1970 - Wang Youping asks Pham Van Dong Vietnam’s position on points concerning the revolution in Cambodia.

Discussion between Mao Zedong and Pham Van Dong
September 23 1970 - Mao Zedong praises Vietnam for skilled military and diplomatic efforts.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai, Le Duan and Pham Van Dong
March 07 1971 -Zhou Enlai, Le Duan and Phan Van Dong discuss China and Vietnam’s role in East Asia and the world.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Le Duan
July 13 1971 - Vietnamese tactics against the US during negotiation.

Discussion between Le Duc Tho and Ieng Sary
September 07 1971 - Le Duc Tho offers advice to Ieng Sary about the current conflict between China and the Soviet Union.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Nguyen Tien
April 12 1972 - Zhou Enlai expresses support for Vietnam in the face of more US bombing.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai, Xuan Thuy and Ly Ban 
July 07 1972 - Zhou Enlai stresses the importance of the time between July and October 1972.

Zhou Enlai’s talk with Xuan Thuy
July 07 1972 - 

Zhou Enlai’s Talk with Le Duc Tho
July 12 1972 - 

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Le Duc Tho
July 12 1972 -Zhou Enlai advises Le Duc Tho on negotiations with the US, particularly the issue of Nguyen Van Thieu.

Discussion between Mao Zedong and Nguyen Thi Binh
December 29 1972 - Mao Zedong advises Nguyen Thi Binh to continue with negotiations.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Truong Chinh
December 31 1972 - Zhou Enlai pushes for negotiations.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Le Duc Tho
January 03 1973 - Zhou Enlai encourages Vietnam’s negotiations with the US.

Zhou Enlai’s talk with Le Duc Tho
January 03 1973 - 

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Prince Sihanouk
January 24 1973 - Zhou Enlai ensures no outside interference in the countries of Cambodia and Laos.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Pen Nouth
February 02 1973 -Zhou Enlai reads a statement from Mao Zedong expressing approval of the US withdrawal.

Discussion between Mao Zedong and Le Duc Tho
February 02 1973 - Mao Zedong makes suggestions as to the course for action after the signing of the Paris Agreements.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai, Le Duan, Pham Van Dong and Le Thanh Nghi
June 05 1973 - The role of China and Vietnam in the Cambodian revolution; also a discussion on the current situation in South Vietnam.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai, Le Duan, Pham Van Dong and Le Thanh Nghi
June 06 1973 - Le Duan asks Zhou Enlai for Chinese help in building industry and infrastructure, as per a previous agreement between China and Vietnam.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Pham Van Dong
August 16 1973 - Zhou Enlai discusses his concerns regarding US negotiations in Cambodia.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Le Thanh Nghi
October 08 1973 - 

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Le Thanh Nghi
August 03 1974 - 

Conversation between Chinese leader Mao Zedong and Cambodian leader Pol Pot
June 21 1975 -Mao Zedong muses on the nature of the struggle between the capitalist and socialist forces within China. He tells Pol Pot not to blindly follow the Chinese model, but adopt Marxist theory to the Cambodian realities. Excepts.

Discussion between Mao Zedong and Le Duan
September 24 1975 - 

MInutes of conversation between Deng Xiaoping and Le Duan
September 29 1975 - Deng Xiaoping recounts a meeting between Zhou Enlai and Ho Chi Minh, at which Ho Chi Minh accused the Chinese of attempting to intimidate the Vietnamese by stationing troops close to the Chinese-Vietnamese border. Le Duan states that he had never been brifed on that meeting. Excerpt.

Hua Guofeng’s Statement to Vietnamese Leaders
November 22 1976 - 

Discussion between Hua Guofeng and Pol Pot
September 29 1977 - 

Comrade B on the Plot of the Reactionary Chinese Clique Against Vietnam
January 01 1979 - Speech by Comrade B (Le Duan) regarding the plot of reactionary Chinese clique against Vietnam. Published in CWIHP Bulletin Nos 12/13.

Excerpts from official Vietnamese “Sapper Handbook”
January 01 1992 - Translated excerpts from an official People’s Army of Vietnam (PAVN) handbook for the elite “Sapper” forces, Vietnamese army’s commando/special forces troops. These excerpts discuss the Sapper’s training of foreign commando forces from countries such as Laos, Cambodia, Cuba, and the Soviet Union.

Excerpts from “Calendar of Events in the History of the Sapper Branch of the People’s Army of Vietnam (1967-1997)”
January 01 1997 - Translated excerpts from an official People’s Army of Vietnam (PAVN) publication which gives a timeline of events of the “Sapper Branch,” the Vietnamese army’s commando/special forces troops. These excerpts discuss the Sapper’s training of foreign commando forces from Cuba, El Salvador and the Soviet Union.

Excerpts from Ordnance: Chronology of Historical Events, Volume 2
1976-1982 - Excerpts from an internal Vietnamese army history which describes the shipment of weapons internationally, likely to aid revolutionaries in Latin America. Also describes a visit by the military attaché of the Cuban embassy in Vietnam to the weapons warehouse.

Discussion between Zhou Enlai and Le Duan
00/00/1971 - Zhou Enlai agrees with Vietnam on the terms of total US withdrawal and exposing Nixon’s deceptive personality

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